The armed forces are referred to the relevant authorities of the United States for investigation and disposition. 23 The agreement allows the Government of Mongolia to invite the United States to relinquish jurisdiction in cases of alleged criminal conduct that has nothing to do with official duty.24 The United States is not required to relinquish jurisdiction, but only to “favourably consider” such a request.25 In 1947, the United States and the Republic of the Philippines entered into an agreement on military justice. 99 The agreement was for a period of five years. from July 4, 1946 and on condition that the United States provide military assistance to the Philippines for the training and development of the armed forces. The agreement also established an advisory group to provide advice and support to the Philippines, as approved by the United States. 100 The agreement was extended and amended in 1953 for a further period of five years.101 There has been some controversy over whether these agreements could be properly concluded by the executive without the participation of Congress on behalf of the United States.121 Security agreements that authorize the United States to take military action to defend another country have generally been ratified as treaties.122 The fact that the security agreement is intended for the United States to participate in military operations in Iraq and to be able to defend the Iraqi government against external or internal security threats requires congressional authorization so that it is legally binding on the United States. . . .